The most important components of a company’s culture are its invisible, ineffable dicta. As we will see in today’s examples, they can lead competent, well-resourced companies astray.
Fueled by a significant number of hires from other car makers and real estate expansion beyond the upcoming hypergalactic spaceship HQ in Cupertino, rumors of an Apple Car keep percolating. I hope to drive an Apple Car someday… but does Apple’s personal computing software knowhow translate into the high-reliability real-time code required for a safe, reliable and, of course, elegant electric car?
Parkinson’s Law tells us that “work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion”. Applied to software, this means that applications tend to bloatware, obese programs whose complexity makes them nearly impossible to debug and maintain. Today, we look at happier counterexamples, past and current, of ambitious products created by “hermit programmers”.
At last October’s introduction of the new iPad Air, the creators of a clever iOS app named Replay were invited on stage. To get there, they went through a selection process that illustrates Apple’s perfectionism — and hidden application sophistication.
by Jean-Louis Gassée
While Microsoft Office for mobile is a satisfying success, the company can’t seem to create — or even buy — a mobile operating system that can compete with iOS and Android. Perhaps they’ve been looking in the wrong direction and can return to their “trusted” Embrace and Extend tactics.
Microsoft published its numbers for its Fiscal Year 2015 2nd quarter ending in December 2014. While the company isn’t the money machine it once was, it is healthy: Revenue grew 8% to $26.5B, Operating Income declined only a bit (- 2%) at $7.8B, there will be another $.31 dividend for the quarter, and cash reserves stand at $90B.
Such numbers give Satya Nadella the space he needs to implement the Mobile First – Cloud First vision he outlined last year. A key component of this plan is to spread Office applications across all platforms and devices: PCs, tablets, and smartphones – native apps as well as Web versions. Last week, Microsoft took another step in this direction with the release of its historic Outlook PIM (Personal Information Manager) app for Android and iOS.
While the Outlook release was warmly received, I’ve learned to take enthusiastic press reviews with caution. I prefer to “play customer”: I buy and use the product in klutzy ways engineers can’t foresee and, as a result, I get a better idea of how the product will fare in the real world. So, I installed Outlook on my iPad mini and, not to pour salt on some wounds… It Just Works. It runs my Exchange account at work, and it speaks Gmail and iCloud as well. No ifs, no buts.
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the release is that it completes the core components of the native MS Office bundle: Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and now Outlook. It doesn’t matter which platform you use — Windows, Mac, Android, or iOS — you now have the full complement of Microsoft’s productivity apps built specifically for your device.
I used to think that if Apple could get its software house in order and work out the (numerous) bugs, iWork could easily displace Microsoft Office on Mac, iCloud, and iOS. After all, iWork is free… Now, I’m not so sure. With this release, MS Office provides a fit and finish, a safe and effective cross-platform solution that’s worth the price of admission, particularly in the Enterprise world.
But Apple isn’t the competitor Microsoft worries about. Cross-platform Office is a powerful countermove against Google Apps. Microsoft doesn’t have a dog in the old Web vs. Native Apps fight, it offers both everywhere.
In other matters, however, things aren’t entirely rosy for Microsoft. Its smartphone hardware business isn’t doing well. A look at the recent 10-Q and at the slide presentation for the Earnings Release shows hardware revenue of $2.3B, for 10.5M Lumia phones and 39.7M on-Lumia devices:
Microsoft’s smartphone business is still dealing with the Nokia acquisition trauma, so these numbers are less reliable than in a stable business. But even if we proceed with caution, when we divide the $2.3B revenue number by 50.2M (the total number of devices), we get a meager ASP (Average System Price) of $46.
One could argue that the computation is misleading because it throws Non-Lumia phones — such as the Nokia X running Android — into the same pot as worthier Lumia devices. So let’s take take another stab at the numbers: Let’s imagine that all non-Lumia phones are simply given away, $0 ASP. That leaves us with 10.5M Lumia phones divided into $2.3B revenue for a yield of $219 ASP. Compare this to the $687 ASP Apple got for its iPhones last quarter. Playing with numbers a bit more, if you assume a $20 ASP for non-Lumia “dumbphones”, the ASP for Lumia smart devices comes to $143.
After fruitlessly jumping into a Broad Strategic Partnership with Nokia and then promptly Osborning it, Microsoft acquired the company’s smartphone business rather than letting it die. It’s still not working and, as the most recent industry numbers show, there’s little hope that Microsoft’s phone hardware business, while saddled with the hapless Windows Phone OS, will be anything other than a waste of time, money, and reputation. Many have suggested that Microsoft drop its OS efforts and fork Android, returning, in Ben Thompson’s words, to “its roots of embracing and extending”.
That brings us to Cyanogen. In the grand tradition of Homebrew Computing that gave birth to Microsoft, Apple and countless others, developers have taken the Open Android operating system and opened it even more, creating a raft of improved versions.
Initially, many thought these variants were just for the hacker who wanted to play with his Android device, reflash its ROM, and grow hair on his chest. But one Android strain, CyanogenMod, exhibited such vitality hat it spawned an organized, for-profit company. In 2012, Benchmark and Redpoint led a $7M Series A investment in Cyanogen, Inc. (“Series A” is typically the first serious VC money, after a Seed Round.) In December, 2014, there was a more substantial $23M Series B round, led by another member of the Valley’s VC nobility, Andreessen Horowitz. And now, there is talk of a $70M round… in which Microsoft might be a “minority” player.
Kirk McMaster, Cyanogen’s CEO, has been unusually candid about the company’s goal [emphasis mine]:
“I’m the CEO of Cyanogen. We’re attempting to take Android away from Google.”
“We’ve barely scratched the surface in regards to what mobile can be. Today, Cyanogen has some dependence on Google. Tomorrow, it will not. We will not be based on some derivative of Google in three to five years. There will be services that are doing the same old bulls— with Android, and then there will be something different. That is where we’re going here.”
Ambitious words, indeed, but they’re backed by some of the Valley’s smartest money.
Microsoft’s role in Cyanogen is probably just a minor one; perhaps it will help with the patent portfolio it unleashes on Android OEMs. But the company’s involvement at all could be seen as part of its long battle with Google. Recall that “Google acquired Android in 2005 as a defense against Windows Mobile dominating smartphones just as Windows dominated PCs.” Later, in 2008, Microsoft acquired Android founder Andy Rubin’s previous company Danger, whose Sidekick design inspired Google’s pre-iPhone G1 devices.
Cyanogen has long been in Google’s cross-hairs. In its early days, CyanogenMod (since renamed to Cyanogen OS) was perceived as such a nuisance — or a threat — that its users suddenly found that they needed to perform contorted workarounds to load Google’s proprietary apps (Google Map, YouTube, GTalk, and so on). Can Microsoft resist the temptation to aid this Google irritant?
Tantalizing as the Cyanogen investment is, it might not be enough to keep Microsoft in the brutal smartphone hardware business, but it’s consistent with the company’s efforts to undermine Google’s ecosystem by any means necessary. Including gathering allies to do to Android what Bill Gates once did to Lotus 1-2-3.
Let’s keep in mind that the mobile industry is no more mature than the PC industry was in the mid eighties. Things could get interesting as Cyanogen reveals more of the business model its muscular investors have bought into. And they will become particularly interesting if the company can corral support from industry players who are eager to get out from under Google’s thumb.
by Jean-Louis Gassée
A flurry of recent software accidents in iOS and OS X raises questions about Apple’s management of its relentless increase in R&D spending.
For the past six months or so, I’ve become increasingly concerned about the quality of Apple software. From the painful gestation of OS X 10.10 (Yosemite) with its damaged iWork apps, to the chaotic iOS 8 launch, iCloud glitches, and the trouble with Continuity, I’ve gotten a bad feeling about Apple’s software quality management. “It Just Works”, the company’s pleasant-sounding motto, became an easy target, giving rise to jibes of “it just needs more work”.
I felt this was an appropriate Monday Note topic but kept procrastinating. Then the Holidays break came, including time on a boat with worse than no Internet – meaning frustratingly unpredictable and slow when on.
“We don’t need major OS releases every year. We don’t need each OS release to have a huge list of new features. We need our computers, phones, and tablets to work well first so we can enjoy new features released at a healthy, gradual, sustainable pace.
I fear that Apple’s leadership doesn’t realize quite how badly and deeply their software flaws have damaged their reputation, because if they realized it, they’d make serious changes that don’t appear to be happening. Instead, the opposite appears to be happening: the pace of rapid updates on multiple product lines seems to be expanding and accelerating.”
(Unfortunately, this well-meaning, reasoned critique from a respected Apple developer became fodder for the usual click-baiters, leading Arment to regret that he wrote it. This is sad.)
Arment isn’t the only one lamenting Apple’s software quality. See Glenn Fleishman’s well-documented list of nontrivial issues, or Michael Tsai’s compilation of comments from developers and engineers, such as this one from Geoff Wozniak (no relation to Woz):
“At this point, my default position on Apple software in OS X has moved from ‘probably good’ to ‘probably not OK’. They seem more interested in pumping out quantity by way of more upgrades. It’s death by a thousand cuts, but it’s death nonetheless.”
I’m late to this discussion but I’d like to add a few detailed observations of my own, examples of questionable design decisions, poor implementation, and other “broken windows”. Boredom may ensue.
We’ll start with Apple’s Pages word processor. When it was introduced ten years ago, I found it mostly pleasant, easy for my limited use, progressively improved over a succession of releases, with welcome features such as Google Search, Wikipedia, and Dictionary/Thesaurus integration.
Curiously, however, Pages did some things differently. Hyperlink creation, for example, was inconsistent with Apple Mail, TextEdit, and Microsoft Word conventions. With these “older” products, you select some text, press cmd-K, paste the URL of the desired destination, and you’re good to go:
In the new Pages, no cmd-K joy. You have to bring up the Inspector, paste the link in the URL field, and press Enter.
It’s not overly complicated, but why abandon the simple ⌘-K convention used elsewhere on the Mac?
With each Pages update I hoped for a return to the ancient ways, and when Pages 5 came out in late 2013, I thought my prayers had been answered. I select some text, type ⌘-K, and up pops the link editor:
I paste the target URL into the Link field, press Enter, and I’m done, right? I’ve just created a link to a MacWorld story.
But, no. If I go back to the link I just entered, I see this:
This can’t be right…I click Edit and go through the process again, the intended link sticks this time. Out of fear of having stumbled on an unreproducible phantom quirk, I carefully step through the procedure several times from different angles.
If I tiptoe to the File menu and click Save after I’ve pasted the URL but without pressing Enter, the intended link stays; it’s not replaced by www.apple.com:
However, this only works if I Tab into the Link field and paste my URL. If I double-click on the pre-filled www.apple.com, paste the URL, and Save from the File menu, the link is gone. (Again, I carefully reproduced the procedure.)
This is madness.
But it doesn’t stop there.
Befuddled users found they couldn’t send Pages 5 files through Gmail. It’s now fixed, as the What’s New in Pages screen proudly claims…
…but how could such an obvious, non-esoteric bug escape Apple’s attention in the first place?
Then we have “deprecated” features. Gone are the convenient Writing Tools:
Search with Google is still there, but it’s harder to find; a Look-Up function bundles the Dictionary and Wikipedia but, believe it or not, there’s no Thesaurus. I also liked the Search function in Pages 4.3:
It’s gone in Pages 5. Admittedly, this might not be a big deal for most users, but it allowed me to have kremlinology fun with executive abuse of words such as “incredible” and other platitudinous phrases.
We know the official excuse for removing features: iOS compatibility. It’s a noble goal on paper, and it sounds good on stage and in Keynote slides, but iWork on iOS is far from a godsend. Creating even a moderately complex document on an iPad is an unpleasant, frustrating experience.
Even if we concede that iOS compatibility may mean some amount of “dumbing down” (and we’ll note that the MacWorld review was careful to call Pages 5 a different product rather than a mere update), why didn’t Apple catch more of the obvious bugs? I’d like to have a quiet on-on-one with the Pages product manager to hear his/her explanations for the state of the product.
I can’t leave Pages without a stop at the iCloud version. (Apple, probably taking a page from Google’s old playbook, labels all three iWork products “beta”.) I tried writing a Monday Note article in iCloud. Impossible, no links. If I turn to the version of Microsoft Word on their One Drive service…It Just Works:
Imagine Microsoft running an ad campaign: I’m One Drive, You’re iCloud…
To be complete, Microsoft’s Office Online isn’t without its own quirks. It loves me so much it refuses to sign me out:
We now turn to iTunes. Pages might not concern a majority of Mac users, but iTunes sure does, and it presents an even sorrier spectacle than Apple’s productivity apps.
A good product allows its users to build a mental model of what it does and how it does it. Paraphrasing Alan Kay, the user forms a what/how idea at the product’s door, then walks in and finds an Ali Baba cave full of pleasant surprises. How this applies to iTunes is left to the reader. iTunes is a mess, an accumulation of debris and additions without a discernible backbone. I won’t go as far as the Valley wag who calls iTunes Apple’s Vista, but iTunes reflects poorly on a company that takes prides in the fit and finish of its products.
For example, this is what I see when I open iTunes on my Mac:
If you squint, you’ll see the same Bach Orchestral Suites repeated six times, and Mozart’s Requiem four times. Entries in the Playlist are duplicated for no apparent reason. And let’s not even try to make and manage folders to group playlists by artist or other criteria. Nor can I make sense of the presentation of TV Show episodes. On my Apple TV, iTunes sometimes shows episodes in natural order, but then reverses them for no reason.
No need to continue the litany, the One Cockroach Theory tells us there are many more under the sink. Such as, I can’t resist, iMessages inconsistencies between devices.
Of course, making bugs lists is easier than finding solutions, particularly if we want to avoid “all you have to do” bromides. So, we’ll proceed with caution and look at some numbers.
In 2012, Apple revenue grew by 45% to $156.5B and R&D went up by 39% to $3.4B.
In 2013, revenue grew 9% to $171B but R&D went up 32% to $4.5B.
In 2014, revenue went up 7% to $183B while R&D grew 35% to $6B.
Such relentless increase in R&D spending isn’t “free”, it means hiring lots of people and starting many projects, or, worse, piling more people onto existing ones. This results in management problems, less visibility over a larger number of teams and, vertically, more opaque layers, less ability to diagnose people problems.
Another consideration is priorities. The received wisdom is that Apple engineers hail from Lake Wobegon: They’re “all above average”. But in a fight for resources, where do you put your best soldiers, on iOS or OS X? On Pages or Mail?
Apple execs aren’t indifferent to the company’s software quality problems, and they’re not unaware of the management pitfalls in fixing them. Take Apple Mail: For several years (close to five by my memory of conversations with Bertrand Serlet, then Apple’s head of OS development), Apple Mail had been a painful, many times a day irritant. It consumed so much computing power that the Activity Monitor on my MacBook Pro sometimes showed a CPU usage number as high as 257%, with fans spinning loudly, and general mail operations getting mysteriously stuck. Messages would disappear from a mailbox and yet be found by Spotlight, the Mac’s internal Search engine.
A recent OS X update seems have fixed these problems. A better manager was put in charge, people decisions were finally made, and Apple Mail is now (almost) boringly normal, receiving, sending, deleting, and sorting junk without fuss.
Let’s just hope that the all-important iTunes development team gets the “cure” it deserves, and iWorks after that.
Last, there is the mixed bag of comparisons. One side of the coin is Apple’s numbers are splendid. The quarterly results that will be disclosed next week (January 27th) are likely to show strong iPhone 6 sales and a continuation of Mac progress. And despite my bug list, Apple software still compares favorably to Windows 8 and Android offerings.
The other view is that the quality lapses we observe are the beginning of a slide into satisfied mediocrity, into organizations and projects that “run themselves”, that are allowed to continue for political reasons without regard for the joy of customers.
I know what I hope for. I don’t expect perfection, I’ve lived inside several sausage factories and remember the smell. If Apple were to spend a year concentrating on solid fixes rather than releasing software that’s pushed out to fit a hardware schedule, that would show an ascent rather than a slide.
With one million titles and no human guides, the Apple App Store has become incomprehensible for mere mortals. A simple solution exists: curation by humans instead of algorithms.
You know the numbers better than anyone — I don’t need to quote them to you — but we all know that the iOS App Store is a veritable gold mine. Unfortunately, the App Store isn’t being mined in the best interests of Apple’s customers and developers, nor, in the end, in the interests of the company itself.
The App Store may be a gold mine, but it’s buried in an impenetrable jungle.
Instead of continuing with this complaint, I’ll offer a suggestion: Let humans curate the App Store.
Instead of using algorithms to sort and promote the apps that you permit on your shelves, why not assign a small group of adepts to create and shepherd an App Store Guide, with sections such as Productivity, Photography, Education, and so on. Within each section, this team of respected but unnamed (and so “ungiftable”) critics will review the best-in-class apps. Moreover, they’ll offer seasoned opinions on must-have features, UI aesthetics, and tips and tricks. A weekly newsletter will identify notable new titles, respond to counter-opinions, perhaps present a developer profile, footnote the occasional errata and mea culpa…
The result will be a more intelligible App Store that makes iOS users happier.
If I’m so convinced, why don’t I drive it myself? You might recall that I offered to do so — for free — in a brief lobby conversation at the All Things D conference a couple of years ago. The ever-hovering Katie Cotton gave me the evil eye and that was the end of the exchange.
I look back on my years at Apple with a certain affection, and would be happy to repay the company for what it did for me, so, yes, I would do it for free… but I can’t bankroll a half dozen tech writers, nor can I underwrite the infrastructure costs. And it won’t pay for itself: As an independent publication (or, more likely, an app) an App Store Guide isn’t financially viable. We know it’s next to impossible to entice people to pay for information and, as the Monday Note proves, I have no appetite for becoming a nano-pennies-per-pageview netwalker.
So, the App Store Guide must be an Apple publication, a part of its ecosystem.
PS: We both understand that ideas are just ideas, they’re not actual products. As Apple has shown time and again — and most vividly with the 30-year old tablet idea vs. the actual iPad — it’s the product that counts. If you see the wisdom of a human-curated Apple App Guide, and I hope you do, I will not seek credit.
Regular Monday Note readers will remember I already tilted at the App Store curation windmill: Why Apple Should Follow Michelin and the tongue-in-cheek Google’s Red Guide to the Android App Store. Who knows, the third time might be the charm.
To play devil’s advocate, let’s consider a developer’s bad reaction to an Apple App Guide review. Let’s say MyNewApp gets a thumbs down in the Productivity section of the Guide. I’m furious; I write Tim or Eddy Cue an angry letter, I huffs and puff, threaten to take my business elsewhere — to Windows Phone, for example. I exhort my friends, family, and satisfied customers to contribute to a letter-writing campaign…
Why risk this sort of backlash? Particularly when today’s formula of “featuring” apps seems to be working:
But…does it really work all that well? Today’s way of choosing this app over that one already upsets the non-chosen. Further, the stars used to “measure” user feedback are known to be less than reliable. A thoughtful, detailed, well-reasoned review would serve customers and developers alike.
This leads us to the Guide’s most important contribution to the app universe: Trust. An Apple-sponsored App Guide can be trusted for a simple reason: The company’s one and only motive is to advance its users’ interests by making the App Store more trustworthy, more navigable. As for developers, they can rely on a fair and balanced (seriously) treatment of their work. The best ones will be happier and the “almost best” others will see an opportunity to get their improved work noticed in a future review cycle.
There is also the temptation to shrug the suggestion off with the customary ‘Don’t fix it, it’s not broken.’ Sorry, no, it is broken. See what Marco Arment, a successful Apple developer, says on his blog [emphasis mine]:
“Apple’s App Store design is a big part of the problem. The dominance and prominence of “top lists” stratifies the top 0.02% so far above everyone else that the entire ecosystem is encouraged to design for a theoretical top-list placement that, by definition, won’t happen to 99.98% of them. Top lists reward apps that get people to download them, regardless of quality or long-term use, so that’s what most developers optimize for. Profits at the top are so massive that the promise alone attracts vast floods of spam, sleaziness, clones, and ripoffs.”
“Quality, sustainability, and updates are almost irrelevant to App Store success and usually aren’t rewarded as much as we think they should be, and that’s mostly the fault of Apple’s lazy reliance on top lists instead of more editorial selections and better search.
The best thing Apple could do to increase the quality of apps is remove every top list from the App Store.”
We can now turn to my own biases.
Why do I care? Good question, I’m now 70 and could just sit in zazen and enjoy the show. And there’s a lot of show to enjoy: The tech industry is more exciting now than when I was a rookie at HP France in 1968. But in today’s app stores, the excitement fades — and I’m not just talking about Apple, Android’s Google Play is every bit as frustrating. I see poorly exploited gold mines where quantity obscures quality and the lack of human curation ruins the Joy of Apps. There are caves full of riches but, most of of the time, I can’t find a path to the mother lode.
Is it a lack of courage in anticipation of imagined protests? Hunger sated by too much success too soon? An addiction to solving all problems by algorithm instead of by human judgment?
I hope its none of these, and that we’ll soon see a newsletter/blog and a reasoned, regularly enriched guide that leads us to the better App Store titles.
Satya Nadella’s latest message to the troops – and to the world – is disquieting. It lacks focus, specifics, and, if not soon sharpened, his words will worry employees, developers, customers, and even shareholders.
Whatever is well conceived is clearly said,
And the words to say it flow with ease.
Clarity and ease are sorely missing from Satya Nadella’s 3,100 plodding words, which were supposed to paint a clear, motivating future for 127,000 Microsoftians anxious to know where the new boss is leading them.
Nadella is a repeat befuddler. His first email to employees, sent just after he assumed the CEO mantle on earlier this year, was filled with bombastic and false platitudes:
“We are the only ones who can harness the power of software and deliver it through devices and services that truly empower every individual and every organization. We are the only company with history and continued focus in building platforms and ecosystems that create broad opportunity.”
(More in the February 9th, 2014 Monday Note)
In his latest message, Nadella treats us to more toothless generalities:
“We have clarity in purpose to empower every individual and organization to do more and achieve more. We have the right capabilities to reinvent productivity and platforms for the mobile-first and cloud-first world. Now, we must build the right culture to take advantage of our huge opportunity. And culture change starts with one individual at a time.”
Rather than ceding to the temptation of quoting more gems, let’s turn to a few simple rules of exposition.
First, the hierarchy of ideas:
This admittedly simplistic diagram breaks down an enterprise into four layers and can help diagnose thinking malfunctions.
The top layer deals with the Identity or Culture — I use the two terms interchangeably as one determines the other. One level down, we have Goals, where the group is going. Then come the Strategies or the paths to those goals. Finally, we have the Plan, the deployment of troops, time, and money.
The arrow on the left is a diagnostic tool. It reminds us that as we traverse the diagram from Identity to Plan, the number of words that we need to describe each layer increases. It should only take a few words to limn a company’s identity (Schlumberger, oil services; Disney, family entertainment), describing the company’s goals will be just a tad more verbose (“in 5 years’ time we’ll achieve $X EPS, Y% revenue growth and Z% market share”), and so on.
The arrow also tells us that the “rate of change” — the frequency at which a description changes — follows the same trajectory. Identity should change only very slowly, if ever. At the other end, the plan will need constant adjustment as the company responds to rapidly shifting circumstances, the economy, the competition.
Using the old Microsoft as an example:
— Identity: We’re the emperor of PC software
— Goals: A PC on every desk and home – running our software
— Strategy: Couple the Windows + Office licenses to help OEMs see the light; Embrace and Extend Office competitors.
— Plan: Changes every week.
Returning to Nadella’s prose, can we mine it for words to fill the top three layers? Definitely not.
Second broken rule: Can I disagree? Any text that relies on platitudes says not much at all; in a message-to-the-troops that’s supposed to give direction, irrefutable statements are deadly. Some randomly selected examples in an unfortunately overabundant field:
“[…] we will strike the right balance between using data to create intelligent, personal experiences, while maintaining security and privacy.”
“Together we have the opportunity to create technology that impacts the planet.”
“Obsessing over our customers is everybody’s job.”
If I’m presented with statements I cannot realistically disagree with – We Will Behave With Utmost Integrity – I feel there’s something wrong. If it’s all pro and no con, it’s a con.
There are other violations but I’ll stop in order to avoid the tl;dr infraction I reproach Nadella for: Never make a general statement without immediately following it with the sacramental “For Example”.
“[…] we will modernize our engineering processes to be customer-obsessed, data-driven, speed-oriented and quality-focused.”
… would be more believable if followed by:
“Specifically, we’ll ask each each software engineer to spend two days every month visiting customers on even months, and third party developers on odd ones. They will also spend one day per quarter seconding Customer Service Representatives over our phone banks.”
Satya Nadella is an unusually intelligent man, a Mensa-caliber intellect, well-read, he quotes Nietzsche, Oscar Wilde, and Rainer Maria Rilke. Why, then, does he repeatedly break basic storytelling rules?
Two possible explanations come to mind.
First, because he’s intelligent and literate, he forgot to use an unforgiving editor. ‘Chief, you really want to email that?’ Or, if he used an editor, he was victimized by a sycophantic one. ‘Satya, you nailed it!’
Second, and more likely, Nadella speaks in code. He’s making cryptic statements that are meant to prepare the troops for painful changes. Seemingly bland, obligatory statements about the future will decrypt into wrenching decisions:
“Organizations will change. Mergers and acquisitions will occur. Job responsibilities will evolve. New partnerships will be formed. Tired traditions will be questioned. Our priorities will be adjusted. New skills will be built. New ideas will be heard. New hires will be made. Processes will be simplified. And if you want to thrive at Microsoft and make a world impact, you and your team must add numerous more changes to this list that you will be enthusiastic about driving.”
In plainer English: Shape up or ship out.
Tortured statements from CEOs, politicians, coworkers, spouses, or suppliers, in no hierarchical order, mean one thing: I have something to hide, but I want to be able to say I told you the facts.
With all this in mind, let’s see if we can restate Nadella’s message to the troops:
This is the beginning of our new FY 2015 – and of a new era at Microsoft.
I have good news and bad news.
The bad news is the old Devices and Services mantra won’t work.
For example: I’ve determined we’ll never make money in tablets or smartphones.
So, do we continue to pretend we’re “all in” or do we face reality and make the painful decision to pull out so we can use our resources – including our integrity – to fight winnable battles? With the support of the Microsoft Board, I’ve chosen the latter. We’ll do our utmost to minimize the pain that will naturally arise from this change. Specifically, we’ll offer generous transitions arrangements in and out of the company to concerned Microsoftians and former Nokians.
The good news is we have immense resources to be a major player in the new world of Cloud services and Native Apps for mobile devices. We let the first innings of that game go by, but the sting energizes us. An example of such commitment is the rapid spread of Office applications – and related Cloud services – on any and all mobile devices. All Microsoft Enterprise and Consumer products/services will follow, including Xbox properties.
I realize this will disrupt the status quo and apologize for the pain to come. We have a choice: change or be changed.
Or words (about 200) to that effect.
In parting, Nadella would do well to direct his attention to another literate individual, John Kirk, whose latest essay, Microsoft Is The Very Antithesis Of Strategy, is a devastating analysis that compares the company’s game plan to the advice given by Sun Tzu, Liddell Hart, and Carl von Clausewitz, writers who are more appropriate to the war that Microsoft is in than the authors Microsoft’s CEO seems to favor.
The CEO’s July 10th email promises more developments, probably around the July 22nd Earnings release. Let’s hope he’ll offer sharper and shorter words to describe Microsoft’s entry into the Cloud First – Mobile First era.
Apple tears down the walls between iOS applications, developer rejoice, and Tim Cook delivers a swift kick to Yukari Iwatani Kane’s derrière – more on that at the end.
In this year’s installment of the World Wide Developers Conference, Apple announced a deluge of improvements to their development platforms and tools, including new SDKs (CloudKit, HomeKit, HealthKit); iCloud Drive, the long awaited response to Dropbox; and Swift, an easy-to-learn, leak-free programming language that could spawn a new generation of Apple developers who regard Objective-C as esoteric and burdensome.
If this sounds overly geeky, let’s remind ourselves that WWDC isn’t intended for buyers of Apple products. It’s a sanctuary for people who write OS X and iOS applications. This explains Phil Schiller’s absence from the stage: Techies don’t trust marketing people. (Unfortunately, the conference’s ground rules seem to have been lost on some of the kommentariat.)
The opening keynote is a few breaths short of 2 hours. If you’d rather not drink from the proverbial fire hydrant, you can turn to summaries from Federico Viticci in MacStories, Andrew Cunningham in Ars Technica (“Huge for developers. Massive for everyone else.”), or you can look for reviews, videos, and commentary through Apple’s new favorite search engine, DuckDuckGo, “The search engine that doesn’t track you”.
For today, I’ll focus on the most important WWDC announcement: iOS applications have been freed from the rigid silos, the walls that have prevented them from talking to each other. Apple developers can now write extensions to their apps and avail themselves of the interprocess facilities that they expect from a 21st century OS.
A bit of history will help.
When the first iPhone is shipped in late June, 2007, iOS is incomplete in many respects. There’s no cut and paste, no accented characters, and, most important, there are no native apps. Developers must obey Steve Job’s dictate to extend the iPhone through slow and limited Web 2.0 apps. In my unofficial version numbering, I call this iOS 0.8.
The Web 2.0 religion doesn’t last long. An iOS Software Development Kit (SDK) is announced in the fall and released in February, 2008. When the iTunes-powered App Store opens its doors in July, the virtual shelves are (thinly) stocked with native apps. This is iOS 1.0.
Apple developers enthusiastically embrace the platform and the App Store starts it dizzying climb from an initial 500 apps in 2008 to today’s 1.2 million apps and 75B cumulated downloads.
However, developers’ affections don’t extend to Apple’s “security state”, the limits imposed on their apps in the name of security and simplicity. To be sold in the App Store, an app must agree to stay confined in its own little sandbox, with no way to communicate with other apps.
According to Apple dogma, this limitation is a good thing because it prevents the viruses and other malware that have plagued older operating systems and overly-trusting apps. One wrong click and your device is visited by rogue code that wreaks havoc on your data, yields control to remote computers, or, worst of all, sits silently and unnoticed while it spies on your keystrokes. No such thing on iOS devices. The prohibition against inter-application exchange vastly reduces the malware risk.
This protection comes with a cost. For example, when you use a word processor or presentation tool on a personal computer, you can grab text and images of any provenance and drop them into your project. On the iOS version of Pages, you can only see other Pages documents — everything else is out of sight and out of reach.
The situation becomes even more galling when developers notice that some of Apple’s in-house apps — iMessage, Maps, Calendar with Contacts — are allowed to talk among themselves. To put it a little too simply, Apple engineers can write code that’s forbidden to third party developers.
Apple’s rules for app development and look-and-feel are famously (and frustratingly) rigid, but the company is occasionally willing to shed its dogma. In 2013, for example, skeuomorphism was abandoned…do any of us miss the simulated leather and torn bits of paper on the calendar?
With last week’s unveiling of the new version of iOS, a much more important dogma has been tossed into the dustbin: An app can now reach beyond its sandbox. Apps can interconnect, workflows are simplified, previously unthinkable feats are made possible.
This is the real iOS 2.0. For developers, after the 2008 momentous opening of the App Store that redefined the smartphone, this is the second major release.
With the new iOS, a third-party word processor developer can release his app from its sandbox by simply incorporating the Document Picker:
“The document picker feature lets users select documents from outside your app’s sandbox. This includes documents stored in another app’s iCloud container or documents provided by a third-party extension.”
Users of the word processor will be able to see and incorporate all files, regardless of how they were created or where they’re stored (within the obvious physical limits). This is a welcome change from today’s frustratingly constricted situation.
iOS Extensions, a feature that lets applications offer their own services to other apps, played well when demonstrated by Craig Federighi, Senior VP of Apple Software:
“Federighi was able to easily modify Safari by adding a sharing option for Pinterest and a translation tool courtesy of Bing. Users will also be able to apply photo filters from third-party apps and use document providers like Box or OneDrive…”
Business Insider, Why You Should Be Excited for Extensions in iOS 8
Prominent among the benefactors of iOS Extensions are third-party keyboard designers. Today, I watch with envy as my Droid compatriots Swype a quick text message. The keyboard layouts and input methods on my iPhone are limited to the choices Apple gives me — and they don’t include Swype. Tomorrow, developers will be able to augment Apple’s offerings, including keyboards that are designed for specific apps.
“We’re most excited about extensions, widgets, TouchID APIs and interactive notifications. We’re all over all of that…This is a huge update for us. It feels like we got four out of our top five most wanted requests!”
Now, for the mandatory “To Be Sure” paragraph…
None of this is free. I don’t mean in the financial sense, but in terms of complexity, restrictions, adapting to new ways of doing old things as well as to entirely fresh approaches. While the relaxation of Apple’s “security state” strictures opens many avenues, it also heightens malware risk, something Apple is keenly aware of. In some cases the company will put the onus on the user, asking us to explicitly authorize the use of an extension. In other situations, as Charles Arthur points out in his WWDC article for The Guardian, Apple will put security restrictions on custom keyboards. Quoting Apple’s prerelease documentation:
“There are certain text input objects that your custom keyboard is not eligible to type into. First is any secure text input object [which is] distinguished by presenting typed characters as dots.
When a user taps in a secure text input object, the system temporarily replaces your custom keyboard with the system keyboard. When the user then taps in a nonsecure text input object, your keyboard automatically resumes.”
In part, the price to pay for the new freedoms will depend on Apple’s skills in building safeguards inside the operating system — that’s what all OS strive for. Developers will also have to navigate a new labyrinth of guidelines to avoid triggering the App Store security tripwire.
That said, there is little doubt that the fall 2014 edition of iOS will be well received for both existing and new iDevices. Considering what Apple iOS developers were able to accomplish while adhering to the old dogma, we can expect more than simply more of the same when the new version of iOS is released.
Which brings us to Tim Cook and the stamp he’s put on Apple. Critics who moan that Apple won’t be the same now that Steve Jobs is gone forget the great man’s parting gift: “Don’t try to guess what I would have done. Do what you think its best.” With the Maps fiasco, we saw Cook take the message to heart. In a break with the past, Cook apologized for an Apple product without resorting to lawyerly caveats and justifications. In a real break with the past, he even recommended competing products.
We’ve also seen Cook do what he thinks is best in his changes to the executive team that he inherited from Jobs. Craig Federighi replaces 20-year NeXT/Apple veteran Scott Forstall; Angela Ahrendts is the new head of Retail; there’s a new CFO, Luca Maestri, and a new head of US Sales, Doug Beck. The transitions haven’t always been smooth — both Ahrendts’ and Beck’s immediate predecessors were Cook appointees who didn’t work out and were quickly dismissed. (Beck was preceded by Zane Browe, former CFO at United Airlines…a CFO in a Sales job?)
Inside the company, Cook is liked and respected. He’s seen as calmly demanding yet fair; he guides and is well supported by his Leadership Team. This isn’t what the PR office says, it’s what I hear from French friends who work there. More than just French, they’re hard-to-please Parisians…
…but they like Cook, the way he runs the show. (True to their nature, they save a few barbs for the egregious idiots in their midst.)
On her Web page, Kane insists her book, exemplar of the doomed-without-Jobs attitude, is “hard-hitting yet fair”. That isn’t what most reviewers have to say. The Guardian’s Charles Arthur called it “great title, shame about the contents”; Time’s Harry McCracken saw it as “A Bad Book About Apple After Steve Jobs”; Jason Snell’s detailed review in Macworld neatly addresses the shortcoming that ultimately diminishes the book’s value:
“Apple after the death of Steve Jobs would be a fascinating topic for a book. This isn’t the book. Haunted Empire can’t get out of the way of its own Apple-is-doomed narrative to tell that story.”
Having read the book, I can respect the research and legwork this professional writer, previously at the Wall Street Journal, has put into her opus, but it’s impossible to avoid the feeling that Kane started with a thesis and then built an edifice on that foundation despite the incompatible facts. Even now she churlishly sticks to her negative narrative: Where last week’s successful WWDC felt like a confederation of engineers and application developers happily working together, Kane sees them as caretakers holding a vigil:
The reaction to Kane’s tweet was “hard-hitting yet fair”:
Almost three years after Tim Cook took the helm, the company looks hale, not haunted.
I’ll give Cook the last word. His assessment of Kale’s book: “nonsense”.
So it was declared in the early days: Web apps will win over native apps. Why let the facts cloud an appealing theory?
Marc Andreessen, the Netscape co-founder, is credited with many bold, visionary claims such as “Everyone Will Have the Web” (ca. 1992), “Web Businesses Will Live in the Cloud” (1999), “Everything Will Be Social” (2004, four years before joining Facebook’s Board), and “Software Will Eat the World” (2009).
But not all of Andreessen’s predictions are as ringing and relevant. His 1995 proclamation that “The Browser Will Be the Operating System” still reverberates around the Web, despite the elusiveness of the concept.
The idea is that we can rid our computing devices of their bulky, buggy operating systems by running apps in the Cloud and presenting the results in a Web browser. The heavy lifting is performed by muscular servers while our lightweight devices do nothing more than host simple input/output operations. As a result, our devices will become more agile and reliable, they’ll be less expensive to buy and maintain, we’ll never again have to update their software.
The fly in the ointment is the word connected. As Marc Andreessen himself noted in a 2012 Wired interview [emphasis mine]:
“[I]f you grant me the very big assumption that at some point we will have ubiquitous, high-speed wireless connectivity, then in time everything will end up back in the web model.”
So what do we do until we have ubiquitous, high-speed wireless connectivity?
We must build off-line capabilities into our devices, local programs that provide the ability to format and edit text documents, spreadsheets, and presentations in the absence of a connection to the big App Engines in the Cloud. Easy enough, all you have to do is provide a storage mechanism (a.k.a. a file system), local copies of your Cloud apps, a runtime environment that can host the apps, a local Web server that your Browser can talk to… The inventory of software modules that are needed to run the “Browser OS” in the absence of a connection looks a lot like a conventional operating system… but without a real OS’s expressive power and efficiency.
For expressive power, think of media intensive applications. Photoshop is a good example: It could never work with a browser as the front end, it requires too much bandwidth, the fidelity of the image is too closely tied to the specifics of the display.
With regard to efficiency, consider the constant low-level optimizations required to conserve battery power and provide agile user interaction, none of which can be achieved in a browser plug-in.
Certainly, there are laudable arguments in support of The Browser Is The OS theory. For example: Unified cross-platform development. True, developing an app that will run on a standardized platform decreases development costs, but, let’s think again, do we really want to go for the lowest common denominator? A single standard sounds comfy and economical but it throttles creativity, it discourages the development of apps that take advantage of a device’s specialized hardware.
Similarly, a world without having to update your device because the Cloud always has the latest software is a comforting thought.. but, again, what about when you’re off-line? Also, a growing number of today’s computing devices automatically update themselves.
In any case, the discussion may be moot: The people who pay our salaries — customers — blithely ignore our debates. A recent Flurry Analytics report shows that “Six years into the Mobile Revolution” apps continue to dominate the mobile Web. We spend 86% of our time using apps on our mobile devices and only 14% in our browsers:
…and app use is on the rise, according to the Flurry Analytics forecast for 2014:
So how did Andreessen get it so wrong, why was his prediction so wide of the mark? It ends up he wasn’t wrong… because he never said “The Browser Will Be the Operating System”. Although it has been chiseled into the tech history tablets, the quote is apocryphal.
While doing a little bit of research for this Monday Note, I found a 1995 HotWired article, by Chip Bayers, strangely titled “Why Bill Gates Wants to Be the Next Marc Andreessen”. (Given Microsoft’s subsequent misses and Marc Andreessen’s ascendency, perhaps we ought to look for other Chip Bayer prophecies…) The HotWired piece gives us a clear “asked and answered” Andreessen quote [emphasis mine]:
“Does the Web browser become something like an operating system?
No, it becomes a new type of platform. It doesn’t try to do the things an operating system does. Instead of trying to deal with keyboards, mouses, memory, CPUs, and disk drives, it deals with databases and files that people want to secure – transactions and things like that. We’re going to make it possible for people to plug in anything they want.”
Nearly two decades later, we still see stories that sonorously expound “The Browser Is The OS” theory. Just google the phrase and you’ll be rewarded with 275M results such as “10 reasons the browser is becoming the universal OS” or “The Browser Is The New Operating System”. We also see stories that present Google’s Chrome and Chromebooks as the ultimate verification that the prediction has come true.
The Browser Is The OS is a tech meme, an idea that scratches an itch. The nonquote was repeated, gained momentum, and, ultimately, became “Truth”. We’ll be polite and say that the theory is “asymptotically correct”… while we spend more energy figuring out new ways to curate today’s app stores.